Capernaum was the Galilean headquarters of Jesus’ public ministry for one to three years.
“They went to Capernaum; and when the Sabbath came, He entered the synagogue and taught.”
There are many references in the Gospels to the synagogue at Capernaum, which according to Luke, was built by a Roman centurion. Luke 7:5. Archeologists have uncovered remains of the first century AD synagogue under the floor of the magnificent white limestone building of the fourth century AD.
At Capernaum Jesus lived in the house of Peter’s mother-in-law which has been located in the center of the ruins of the fourth century AD church. You’ll note that all the houses of Jesus’ day were built of simple black basalt stones with an outdoor staircase leading up to the roof.